The pioneering cell-programming therapies

Environmentally friendly and energy-dense sugar battery

New co-treatment could kill cancer cells and suppress tumour growth with fewer side effects

New therapeutic avenue in the fight against chronic liver disease

Chronic liver disease is known as the silent killer, as it shows no obvious symptoms until the disease has progressed to an advanced stage. Therefore, making a proper diagnosis in the early stage of disease progression can be a clinical challenge. An international team of researchers, affiliated with Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), has identified a novel route that regulates the signalling pathways induced by extracellular matrix (ECM). This may serve as a new diagnostic marker and therapeutic target in the fight against chronic liver diseases. The research has been supported by the Research-driven Hospitals Project through the Ministry of Health & Welfare, the Ministry of Science and ICT, and the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation.

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34 days ago

Algae could help accelerate biofuel production

Algae are known to store up large amounts of oils called triacylglycerols (TAGs) under adverse conditions such as nitrogen deprivation. Understanding precisely how they do so is of key interest to the biotechnology sector, as TAGs can be converted to biodiesel. To this end, scientists are investigating the unicellular red alga C. merolae as a model organism for exploring how to improve TAG production. A scientific group, led by Associate Professor Sousuke Imamura at the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) has honed in on an enzyme belonging to the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) family as a promising target for increasing biofuel production from the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

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34 days ago

The knocking down NEAT1 resulted in suppression of cell proliferation and tumour growth

The long noncoding RNA nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) has been shown to regulate multiple cancer-related cellular activities including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration.  NEAT1 is an essential component of the paraspeckle, which is a nuclear speckle near the cell nucleolus. Substantial abnormalities of NEAT1 have been observed frequently in various cancer-related contexts. However, the detailed mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Xuerui Yang’s group in the School of Life Sciences at Tsinghua University has been using an integrative strategy to solve this problem. Their efforts led to the discovery of a transcriptional regulation circuit from CDC5L to AGRN, which is regulated by NEAT1 and responsible for the tumour-promoting function of NEAT1 in prostate cancer cells (lat. Prostate Carcinoma). 

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34 days ago

New approach to fight tuberculosis

Searching in soil, scientists find a new way to combat tuberculosis

New method to deliver drugs to the central nervous system

A new way to prevent regeneration in central nervous system

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, in which the body's own immune cells attack the fatty, insulating myelin sheath surrounding nerve fibers. The regeneration of intact myelin sheaths is a necessary prerequisite for patients to recover from MS relapses. Nevertheless, the body's ability to regenerate myelin decreases with age. A team led by Prof. Mikael Simons from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now found a possible explanation. Fat derived from myelin, which is not carried away rapidly enough by phagocytes, can trigger chronic inflammation that, in turn, impedes regeneration. Furthermore, in a second publication, Simons' team describes the discovery of novel cell type, which appears only when a myelin sheath is being created. The myelin sheath plays a decisive role in the function of the central nervous system. It is a specialized membrane enriched in lipids, which insulates nerve fibers so that electrical signals can be passed on quickly and efficiently. 

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2019.03.29

Laser-targeted removal of prostate tumors

Researchers from the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, led by prostate cancer (lat. Prostate Carcinoma) treatment pioneer Dr. Eric Walser, have shown that selectively destroying cancerous prostate tissue is as effective as complete prostate removal or radiation therapy while preserving more sexual and urinary function than the other treatments. Prostate cancer the second most common form of cancer in men. In fact, 1 in 9 men will be diagnosed during his lifetime. The American Cancer Society estimates 174,650 new cases and 31,620 deaths from prostate cancer in 2019.

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2019.03.29

Predicting and preventing prostate cancer spread

Scientists have uncovered a new pathway which regulates the spread of prostate cancer around the body. The international research team, led by the University of Adelaide and including members from the University of Michigan, Vancouver Prostate Centre, the Mayo Clinic and Johns Hopkins University, showed that a specific microRNA (a type of molecule involved in regulating the level and activity of genes) called miR-194 promotes cancer metastasis by inhibiting a key protein called SOCS2. SOCS2 can suppress the spread of cancer cells. Furthermore, this novel discovery has the potential to lead to the development of a blood test that could predict whether cancer will spread from the prostate tumour to other parts of the body. The research also reveals potential new targets for drugs that may inhibit the spread of cancer.

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2019.03.29

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