Current methods to diagnose prostate cancer (lat. Carcinoma) involve a combination of histologic examinations, prostate antigen testing, and digital rectal examinations. Histological examinations require invasive tissue biopsies, while prostate antigen testing and rectal examination are limited by detection and localization accuracy. As a result, these diagnostic methods to identify prostate cancer lack sensitivity, specificity, and convenience. There are currently, no available methods for accurately and non-invasively distinguishing malignant tumors from benign tissue in the prostate. Therefore, scientists including Andreas Helmut Hielscher, Hyun Keol Kim, Jong Hwan Michael Lee, and Emerson Lim at the Columbia University developed a technology that implements endo-rectal diffuse optical tomography (DOT) imaging to assess tumor localization, vascularity, and architecture for a more accurate detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer.