Cancer tissue cells are divided into two major groups: cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are related to cancer progression and dissemination, so it’s necessary to eradicate CSCs in order to cure cancer. However, because CSCs are resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, cancer is refractory. A scientific team from Osaka University, in collaboration with Tokyo Institute of Technology, had found that there were CD13 surface markers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stem cells. When CD13 inhibitor ubenimex is added to CSCs, HCC stem cells cause apoptosis (programmed cell death), becoming extinct. However, because CSCs only reside in part of tumour tissues, it’s imperative to develop a method for delivering drugs in high concentration to target sites.
Most current displays do not always accurately represent the world's colours as we perceive them by eye, instead only representing roughly 70% of them. To make better displays with true colors commonly available, researchers have focused their efforts on light-emitting nanoparticles. Such nanoparticles can also be used in medical research to light up and keep track of drugs when developing and testing new medicines in the body. However, the metal these light-emitting nanoparticles are based on cadmium, is highly toxic, which limits its applications in medical research and in consumer products. Therefore, it is vital to create non-toxic versions of these nanoparticles that have similar properties: they must produce very clean colours and must do so in a very energy-efficient way. Scientists at Osaka University have managed to create a new type of light-emitting nanoparticle made of ternary non-toxic semiconductors to help create displays and LED lighting with better colours that are more environmentally friendly.
The novel silicon probes for atomic force microscopes which provide extremely high-definition magnifications was developed by NuNano. This company is spinoff of the University of Bristol. NuNano was founded by Dr. James Vicary and Professors Heinrich Hoerber and Mervyn Miles to bring new manufacturing methods and exemplary levels of customer service to an industry broadly unchanged in 20 years. Building on over 30 years of combined experience in atomic force microscopy, their proprietary microfabrication processes enable to manufacture AFM probes with the tightest dimensional tolerances in the market at present.
A recent study, affiliated with the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) has introduced a novel catalyst that can significantly enhance the performance of perovskite electrodes in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). This breakthrough has been led by Professor Gunatae Kim in the School of Energy and Chemical Engineering at UNIST in collaboration with Professor Jeeyoung Shin of Sukmyeong Women’s University, Jeong Woo Hn of Seoul University, and Professor Hu Young Jeong of UCRF at UNIST. The new catalyst forms an alloy in which the internal material of the fuel cell rises to the surface during the operation of the fuel cell. Because of this, it does not break even if you use the hydrocarbon directly, and maintains the performance.
The technology of water desalination was developed by scientists from KAUST and the National University of Singapore. Innovative solutions to improve the efficiency of water desalination are a major focus in countries such as Saudi Arabia, where fresh water for industrial, agricultural and human use is scarce. A research partnership has won global acclaim for its unique and efficient yet low-cost method of conducting desalination called hybrid multi-effect adsorption desalination. The collaboration has resulted in two desalination pilot schemes - one at KAUST itself and the other at a second location also in Saudi Arabia - as well as a spinoff company called MEDAD that will help to commercialize the hybrid desalination technology. The project is led by Kim Choon Ng from the University’s Water Desalination and Reuse Center. Traditional desalination techniques use membranes and pressure to separate salt and other minerals from seawater, but these techniques are expensive, energy intensive and inefficient.
The technology that collects and stores personalized biology - stem cells, DNA, and blood plasma - for future diagnostic and therapeutic purposes was developed by LifeVault Bio. This company is spinoff of Harvard University. LifeVault Bio is developing unique tests using blood to provide a benchmark to help guide better health decisions. It preserves good cells for future cell therapies that may address the damage of disease or aging. LifeVault Bio offered GoodCell technology. The team consists of the most well-known scientists, researchers, and physicians in stem cell science and medicine. The company mission is to facilitate access to personalized biology for diagnostic and therapeutic uses that enables people to age well and live healthier lives. The expert scientific team decided the time was right for this service because of both the rapid advances in science in recent years and the future advances that they see as highly likely in the next few years.